High time for stadiums

n the end of August Russia has opened its second new stadium for the 2018 World Cup. Kazan’s 45,000-seater was the first to be completed. Spartak Moscow’s new home, the Otkrytie Arena became the second. It is situated at the Tushino Airfield grounds in the far north-west of Moscow about 15 kilometers from the city center. Famous Russian football team Spartak has been looking to build a new stadium from as early as the mid-1990s. In its history the club has never had its own stadium, using various stadiums of Moscow.
President Vladimir Putin said the 42,000-seater is «worthy of Russia’s most beloved team». Construction of such modern venues will give an impulse to the development of the entire country.
The Otkrytie Arena (or Spartak Stadium) began construction in October 2010, with the plans revised when Russia won the right to host the 2018 FIFA World Cup. By early 2013 most of the main body of the stadium was completed, after that builders proceeded with the roof.
The 42,000-seat stadium occupies an area of 53,758 square meters (13.2 acres) and is almost 53 meters (174 feet) high. The capacity can be increased to 45,000, to meet the requirements of soccer’s world governing body FIFA. There are 2 522 sq. m of hospitality lounges including VIP lounges. 
The stadium was designed by AECOM and Dexter Moren Associates. The Otkritie Arena’s «compact» design — with a 42,000 seat capacity and clear uninterrupted views — helps to generate atmosphere for the fans. The stadium is formed from pre-cast concrete terracing and an arched steel trussed roof. The roof is designed to cope with Moscow’s temperatures — which can be as low as –40oC — and has structural integrity to deal with heavy snowloads.
Facade design provides a state of the art stadium which reflects the tradition and history of Moscow’s football club. The facade is composed of a series of giant shingles inspired by the Spartak diamond insignia to create an armor like effect. The «armor» shingles follow the curves of the building in each direction and create an overall appearance evocative of the colored and textured domes of traditional Moscow architecture.
Digital media and lighting are incorporated into the facade to capitalize on opportunities of advancements in digital communication channels, display technologies & social media.
The stadium comes accompanied with an indoor arena being able to accommodate about 12,000 people. FC Spartak also plans to include a club museum in the new stadium.
Although there are still almost four years to go before the next World Cup, President Vladimir Putin pointed out on the official opening of the stadium that it was already high time to give thought to how the stadiums would be used after the global football event concludes in Russia.
«We need to think about the future of the World Cup’s heritage now», Putin said, adding that there must be events after the World Cup, which would prevent stadiums from «idling at half capacity».
Although the primary use of Otkritie Arena will be football stadium it has been built for multi-purpose use. As well as being the second venue in Moscow for the 2018 World Cup (it may host the opening game), the stadium will also be used for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup. As part of the infrastructure surrounding the stadium, a new metro station Spartak opened the same day, linking the venue to the center of the city. These two buildings — stadium and station — will be the center of the new sporting cluster in the north-west of Moscow.
Meanwhile the reconstruction of another Moscow stadium, Luzhniki is under way. JSC Mosinzhproekt is a general management company for the project of reconstruction of  the Luzhniki Olympic Complex which stands out as one of the largest sports arenas in Russia as well as worldwide. Its total seating capacity is 78,360 seats, all covered. It is located in Khamovniki District of the Central Administrative Okrug of Moscow city. The name Luzhniki derives from the flood meadows in the bend of Moskva River where the stadium was built, translating roughly as «The Meadows». 
Opened in 1956 as the Moscow’s central sports arena, the Luzhniki Complex has since then offered a variety of leisure and recreation facilities for thousands of Moscow citizens and visitors. Over the course of its existence, the Luzhniki Complex has hosted a large number of sports competitions and fantabulous concerts, including the 1980 Summer Olympics, Russian Football Championship and UEFA Europe League Games, the 2008 Champion League Final, the Rugby World Cup Sevens, the Track and Field World Championship. 
The Luzhniki territory spreads over more than 153 hectares of land. The uniform architectural ensemble of the Luzhniki Complex embraces over 80 facilities, including such key ones as Small Sports Arena, The Palace of Sports, The Swimming Pool, Druzhba multipurpose sports facility, The Sports Area, with the major and widely known Big Sports Arena being at present under renovation. 
The reconstruction of Moscow’s Luzhniki Stadium, the venue for the 2018 FIFA World Cup’s opening ceremony and football final is being renovated to bring its capacity up from 78,000 seats to 81,000, a process that should be completed by the second quarter of 2017. Stadium stands will be brought nearer to facilitate all-round view. There will be multi-purpose arena and a football stadium all under one roof. In order to meet requirements of FIFA the Luzhniki complex will have two new TV broadcasting centers, a press conference hall, an area for brief interviews and a presentation studio with all-round view of football field.
Luzhniki will be used afterwards as a multifunctional sports complex that can host more than 200 large cultural events annually.


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